[1]舒淑珍,王根宪*.商洛市核桃低产幼树高接换优技术试验[J].陕西林业科技,2018,(04):67-70.
 SHU Shu-zhen,WANG Gen-xian*.Experiments on Higher Grafting for Improving the Low yield Walnut Trees in Shangluo[J].,2018,(04):67-70.
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商洛市核桃低产幼树高接换优技术试验()
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《陕西林业科技》[ISSN:1006-6977/CN:61-1281/TN]

卷:
期数:
2018年04期
页码:
67-70
栏目:
试验与调查研究
出版日期:
2018-08-25

文章信息/Info

Title:
Experiments on Higher Grafting for Improving the Low yield Walnut Trees in Shangluo
文章编号:
1001-2117(2018)04-0067-04
作者:
舒淑珍王根宪*
商洛市核桃研究所, 陕西 商州 726000
Author(s):
SHU Shu-zhen WANG Gen-xian*
Shangluo Walnut Institute, Shangzhou, Shaanxi 726000
关键词:
商洛市 核桃 高接换优 成活率 新梢生长量
Keywords:
Shangluo walnut higher grafting survival rate new shoots
分类号:
S664.1
文献标志码:
A
摘要:
为提高商洛市低产低效核桃园产量和效益,在商洛市商州区进行了接穗贮藏方式、嫁接时期、砧木“放水”方式、砧木粗度和嫁接方法、嫁接后保护措施等对嫁接成活率、新梢生长量影响5个单因素试验,结果为3种接穗贮藏方式的平均嫁接成活率为24.6%~94.8%,冷库贮藏最高; 4个时期的嫁接成活率为38.6%~96.3%,展叶期显著高于其他时期; 2种“放水”措施的嫁接成活率为42.8%~93.5%,均显著高于对照(不防水),锯口深达木质部0.5 cm的“放水”效果最好; 嫁接方法对嫁接成活率影响极显著(p<0.01),插皮舌接成活率极显著高于其他2种方法,依次为插皮舌接>插皮接>切接,高接砧木直径6~8 cm时,插皮舌接成活率最高(92.3%); 3种保护措施的嫁接成活率为85.7%~93.5%,均显著高于未采取保护措施(对照),接口内套塑料袋、外用报纸遮荫措施的嫁接成活率既能满足生产需要(嫁接成活率高于85%),管理费用又最低。高接换优综合技术为接穗蜡封剪口后在冷库(0~5 ℃)或高山山洞贮藏,砧木顶芽萌发3~5 cm时嫁接,砧木接口直径以6~8 cm为宜,接前对砧木进行深达木质部的“放水”,采取插皮舌接法嫁接,接后接口采取内套塑料袋、外用报纸遮荫保护措施。
Abstract:
To enhance the efficiency and quantity of low yield walnut plantations, five factors single-factor experiments were conducted to compare the survival rate of grafting and new shoots growth: storage treatment of scions, grafting times selected, making a cut on the bark of root stock to let go of some water, thickness of root stock, and protection measures after grafting. The results showed that three kinds of storage treatments on scions make the grafting survival rates range from 24.6% to 94.8%, with cold storage having highest grafting survivals. Grafting at four different periods make the survival rates range from 38.6% to 96.3%, with the period of leaf spreading having highest grafting survival rate; two kinds of cut made on bark of root-stock have higher grafting survival rates than contrast( without cut made on bark of root stock), with deeper cut root stocks having highest grafting survival rate. Three kinds of protection measures make the grafting survival rate ranging from 85.7% to 93.5%, significantly higher than CK(without protection measure applied), with the measure to wrap the grafting point with film and shading by paper outside much more appropriate to local practice. Based on those above, integrated technology for grafting of walnut in Luonan should be integrated of these factors: scions with wax sealed at the end, storage in coldcondition(0~5 ℃)grafting when root stocks having 3~5 cm shoots with the diameter of grafting point 6~8 cm, cut made on the bark of root stock, wedge grafting adopted, wrapping the grafting position with film and shading with newspaper outside.

参考文献/References:

[1] 张志华,裴东.核桃学[M].北京:中国林业出版社,2018.
[2] 马云攀,黄芳娥.核桃高接换优放水放风方法研究[J].陕西林业科技,2010(6):18-21.
[3] 魏耀峰,王根宪.影响核桃高接换优成活率的主要因子及应对技术措施[J].陕西农业科学,2009(5):218-219.
[4] 王根宪.早实核桃低产原因与增产措施[J].西北园艺,2016(5):24-25.

备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
收稿日期:2018-05-06
基金项目:中央财政林业科技推广示范项目(SLTC[2016]07)。
作者简介:舒淑珍(1971-),女,陕西商洛人,林业工程师,从事核桃栽培研究与技术推广工作。
*通讯作者
更新日期/Last Update: 2018-08-25